Internet Exchange Points in the United States

13 Aug 2017

Emerald Onion is researching IXPs in the U.S.A. in order to identify areas of priority as it concerns increasing global Tor network capacity by way of putting Tor routers directly on these highly interconnected networks. Putting Tor exit routers in IXPs, for example, may reduce network latency to end points. It may also reduce network hops, potentially minimizing the possibility of third-party surveillance. Emerald Onion envisions a future where the Tor network is composed of much larger and more stable network operators, globally.


  1. Are there any Tor routers connected to any United States-based IXPs? If so, which ones and who operates them?
  2. Is this IXP friendly to Tor?
  3. What is the organizational structure of this IXP? Such as corporate-run or community-driven, etc.
  4. What qualities of an IXP should impact how meaningful it would be for the Tor network?
    • Number of participants?
    • Access to specific participants?
    • Nonprofit?
    • Community driven?
    • Affordability?
    • Geolocation?
    • Prohibits network surveillance?

A top 20 list of cities to focus on for Tor development?

  1. Chicago, IL has at least 12 IXPs
  2. New York City, NY has at least 9 IXPs (and has Calyx Institute)
  3. Dallas, TX has at least 6 IXPs
  4. Los Angeles, CA has at least 6 IXPs
  5. Miami, FL has at least 6 IXPs
  6. Seattle, WA has at least 5 IXPs (and has Riseup and Emerald Onion)
  7. San Jose, CA has at least 5 IXPs
  8. Phoenix, AZ has at least 5 IXPs
  9. Ashburn, VA has at least 3 IXPs
  10. Reston, VA has at least 3 IXPs
  11. Boston, MA has at least 3 IXPs
  12. Atlanta, GA has at least 3 IXPs
  13. Portland, OR has at least 3 IXPs
  14. Honolulu, HI has at least 2 IXPs
  15. Denver, CO has at least 2 IXPs
  16. Vienna, VA has at least 2 IXPs
  17. Palo Alto, CA has at least 1 IXP
  18. Salt Lake City, UT has at least 1 IXP (and has XMission)
  19. Minneapolis, MN has at least 1 IXP
  20. Detroit, MI has at least 1 IXP

IXPs in the United States

Ashburn, VA

  1. Equinix Ashburn Exchange (Equinix Ashburn)
  2. LINX Northern Virginia (LINX)
  3. MAE East

Ashland, VA

  1. Richmond Virginia Internet Exchange (RVA-IX)

Atlanta, GA

  1. Digital Realty / Telx Internet Exchange (TIE)
  2. Equinix Internet Exchange Atlanta (Equinix Atlanta)
  3. Southeast Network Access Point (SNAP)

Austin, TX

  1. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)

Billings, MT

  1. Yellowstone Regional Internet eXchange (YRIX)

Boston, MA

  1. Boston Internet Exchange
  2. Massachusetts eXchange Point (MXP)
  3. CoreSite - Any2 Boston

Buffalo, NY

  1. Buffalo Niagara International Internet Exchange (BNIIX)

Chicago, IL

  1. AMS-IX Chicago
  2. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)
  3. Equinix Chicago Exchange (Equinix Chicago)
  4. Greater Chicago International Internet Exchange (GCIIX)
  5. United IX - Chicago (ChIX)
  6. CoreSite - Any2 Chicago
  7. MAE Central

Columbus, OH

  1. OhioIX

Dallas, TX

  1. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)
  2. DE-CIX, the Dallas Internet Exchange (DE-CIX Dallas)
  3. Digital Realty / Telx Internet Exchange (TIE)
  4. Equinix Dallas Exchange (Equinix Dallas)
  5. MAE Central
  6. Megaport MegaIX Dallas (MegaIX Dallas)

Denver, CO

  1. CoreSite - Any2 Denver
  2. Interconnection eXchange Denver (IX-Denver)

Detroit, MI

  1. Detroit Internet Exchange (DET-IX)

Duluth, NM

  1. Twin Ports Internet Exchange (TP-IX)

Gillette, WY

  1. BigHorn Fiber Internet Exchang (BFIX)

Hagåtña, Guam

  1. Guam Internet Exchange (GU-IX)

Honolulu, HI

  1. DRFortress Exchange (DRF IX)
  2. Hawaii Internet eXchange (HIX)

Houston, TX

  1. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)

Indianapolis, IN

  1. Midwest Internet Exchange (MidWest-IX - Indy)

Jacksonville, FL

  1. Jacksonville Internet Exchange (JXIX)

Kansas City, MO

  1. Kansas City Internet eXchange (KCIX)

Los Angeles, CA

  1. CENIC International Internet eXchange (CIIX)
  2. Equinix Los Angeles Exchange (Equinix Los Angeles)
  3. Los Angeles International Internet eXchange (LAIIX)
  4. MAE West
  5. Pacific Wave Exchange in Los Angeles and Seattle (PacificWave)
  6. CoreSite - Any2 California

Madison, WI

  1. Madison Internet Exchange (MadIX)

Manassas, VA

  1. LINX Northern Virginia (LINX)

Medford, OR

  1. Southern Oregon Access Exchange (SOAX)

Miami, FL

  1. Equinix Internet Exchange Miami (Equinix Miami)
  2. MAE East
  3. Miami Internet Exchange (MiamiIX)
  4. NAP of the Americas (NOTA)
  5. The South Florida Internet Exchange (FL-IX)
  6. CoreSite - Any2 Miami

Milwaukee, WI

  1. The Milwaukee IX (MKE-IX)

Minneapolis, MN

  1. Midwest Internet Cooperative Exchange (MICE)

Moffett Field, CA

  1. NGIX West

Nashville, TN

  1. Nashville Internet Exchange (NashIX)

New York, NY

  1. AMS-IX New York (AMS-IX NY)
  2. Big Apple Peering Exchange (BigApe)
  3. Digital Realty / Telx Internet Exchange (TIE)
  4. Equinix Internet Exchange New York (Equinix New York)
  5. Free NYIIX Alternative (NYCX)
  6. New York, NY - (CoreSite - Any2 New York)
  7. DE-CIX, the New York / New Jersey Internet Exchange (DE-CIX New York)
  8. New York International Internet eXchange (NYIIX)
  9. MAE East

Omaha, NE

  1. Omaha Internet Exchange (OmahaIX)

Palo Alto, CA

  1. Equinix Internet Exchange Palo Alto (Equinix Palo Alto)

Philadelphia, PA

  1. Philadelphia Internet Exchange (PHILAIX)

Phoenix, AZ

  1. Arizona Internet Exchange (AZIX)
  2. Digital Realty / Telx Internet Exchange (TIE)
  3. Phoenix Internet Exchange, LLC (PHX-IX)
  4. Phoenix IX
  5. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)

Portland, OR

  1. Central Oregon Internet eXchange (COIX)
  2. Northwest Access Exchange, Inc. (NWAX)
  3. Oregon Internet Exchange (OIX)

Reno, NV

  1. Tahoe Internet Exchange (TahoeIX)

Reston, VA

  1. LINX Northern Virginia (LINX)
  2. MAE East
  3. CoreSite - Any2 NorthEast

Saint George, UT

  1. Southern Utah Peering Regional Network (SUPRnet)

Salt Lake City, UT

  1. Salt Lake Internet Exchange (SLIX)

San Antonio, TX

  1. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)

San Diego, CA

  1. San Diego NAP (SD-NAP)

San Francisco, CA

  1. San Francisco Internet Exchange (SFIX)
  2. San Francisco Metropolitan Internet Exchange (SFMIX)

San Jose, CA

  1. AMS-IX Bay Area (AMS-IX BA
  2. CoreSite - Any2 Northern California)
  3. Equinix San Jose / Bay Area Exchange (Equinix San Jose)
  4. NASA Ames Internet eXchange (AIX)
  5. MAE West

San Juan, Puerto Rico

  1. Internet Exchange of Puerto Rico (IX.PR)
  2. Puerto Rico Bridge Initiative (PRBI-IX)

Seattle, WA

  1. Megaport MegaIX Seattle (MegaIX Seattle)
  2. Pacific Wave Exchange in Los Angeles and Seattle (PacificWave)
  3. Seattle Internet Exchange (SIX)
  4. Seattle Internet Exchange (9000 MTU) (SIX Seattle (Jumbo))
  5. Seattle, WA Equinix Internet Exchange Seattle (Equinix Seattle)

Sterling, VA

  1. CyrusOne Internet Exchange (CyrusOne IX)

Tampa, FL

  1. Tampa Internet Exchange (TampaIX)
  2. Tampa Internet Exchange (TPAIX)

Tulsa, OK

  1. LiveAir Tulsa IX

Vienna, VA

  1. Equinix Internet Exchange Vienna, VA (Equinix Vienna (VA))
  2. MAE East